Street-Fighting Physics!

**Week 9 24-28 October**

**Low Mass Star Death**

**Week 9 24-28 October**

**Low Mass Star Death**

**NOTE: These lectures were recorded before the current lab manual was revised, so the page numbers that I cite in the lectures won't match. Go by what is indicated in the blue type above each image of the lecture.**

**1) Page 73 **

**(2) Page 74 **

**(3) Page 75**

**(4) Page 75, 76**

**(5) Page 76**

**(6) Page 77**

**(7) Page 78 **

**(8) Page 78, 79 **

**(9)**

**Planetary Nebulae**

**Planetary Nebulae**

When stars between 0.4 and 8 solar masses reach the end of their life the cores cease hydrogen fusion and begin to fuse helium into carbon. Eventually the helium fuel runs out, the star cools, contracts, reheats, and then the helium shell outside the carbon core ignites in helium fusion ("helium shell flash"). This represents an exponential increase in energy output and causes the star to expand into an A.G.B. red giant. In our case, the surface of our then-bloated Sun will expand to approximately Earth's orbit. (about 3 to 4 billion years from now).

Eventually the helium fuel will begin to run out as more and more carbon is created. As this happens the fusion in the core will begin to "sputter", like a dying flame. This sputtering will push the outer layers further outward until you have the beautiful formations you see in these pictures. No two are alike. They last roughly 50,000 years (a blink of the eye in cosmic scale) and then dissipate.

What's left in the center is an Earth-sized core of crystalized carbon called a White Dwarf, or in other words, a planet-sized diamond!

Click image below to start slideshow:

**(10)**

### Abell 78Abell 78

### Abell 31Abell 31

### Abell 33Abell 33

### Butterfly NebulaButterfly Nebula

### Cat's Eye NebulaCat's Eye Nebula

### Dumbell NebulaDumbell Nebula

### Eskimo NebulaEskimo Nebula

### ESO 456-67ESO 456-67

### Helix NebulaHelix Nebula

### Hourglass NebulaHourglass Nebula

### IC 5148IC 5148

### NGC 5979NGC 5979

### NGC 6565NGC 6565

### NGC 5189NGC 5189

### Twin Jet NebulaTwin Jet Nebula

### Ant NebulaAnt Nebula

**Low Mass Star Death Review:**

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- Home
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- PHYS Week 1 Lectures Scientific Notation
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- PHYS Week 4 Lectures Scientific Method, Volume, Mass Density
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- PHYS Week 6 Vector Analysis
- PHYS Week 7 Vector Analysis, Lab
- PHYS Week 8 Lectures Judgment Day
- PHYS Week 9 Lectures Motion, Acceleration
- PHYS Week 10 Lectures Acceleration Demos
- PHYS Week 11 Lectures Kinematics - Motion in 2 Dimensions
- PHYS Week 12 Lectures Waves, Doppler, Hubble Law
- PHYS Week 13 Lectures, Michelson-Morley, Special Relativity
- PHYS Week 14 Lectures General Relativity, Black Holes
- PHYS Week 15 Lectures General Relativity, E=mc2
- PHYS Week 16 Lectures Finals Week

- ASTR 100 Syllabus
- ASTR 100 Lab Manual PDF
- ASTR 100 Achieve Student Login
- ASTR Weekly Lectures
- ASTR Week 1 Lectures - Dark Matter, Dark Energy
- ASTR Week 2 Lectures Scientific Notation
- ASTR Week 3 Lectures Astronomic Scales, History (1)
- ASTR Week 4 Lectures Brahe, Kepler, Newton, Gravity
- ASTR Week 5 Lectures Special Relativity
- ASTR Week 6 Lectures General Relativity
- ASTR Week 7 Lectures Star Formation
- ASTR Week 8 Lectures Cepheid Variable Stars
- ASTR Week 9 Lectures Low Mass Star Death
- ASTR Week 10 Lectures High Mass Star Death
- ASTR Week 11 Lectures Neutron Stars, Pulsars, Black Holes
- ASTR Week 12 Lectures Distance-Luminosity Modulus
- ASTR Week 13 Lectures, Waves, Hubble Law
- ASTR Week 14 Lectures Relativistic Red Shift
- ASTR Week 15 Lectures, Big Bang
- ASTR Week 16 Lectures Finals Week

- Galileo's Sketches
- ASTR Planetary Nebulae
- ASTR Neutron Stars and Pulsars
- How Large Is the Universe?
- The Elegant Universe - String Theory
- Space Travel Posters
- James Webb Telescope Images

- Home
- PHYS 110 Syllabus
- PHYS 110 Workbook PDF
- PHYS 110 Achieve Student Login
- PHYS Weekly Lectures
- PHYS Week 1 Lectures Scientific Notation
- PHYS Week 2 Lectures Metric System, Terms, Conversions
- PHYS Week 3 Lectures Scale of Universe, the Atom, History
- PHYS Week 4 Lectures Scientific Method, Volume, Mass Density
- PHYS Week 5 Lectures Vectors, Trig
- PHYS Week 6 Vector Analysis
- PHYS Week 7 Vector Analysis, Lab
- PHYS Week 8 Lectures Judgment Day
- PHYS Week 9 Lectures Motion, Acceleration
- PHYS Week 10 Lectures Acceleration Demos
- PHYS Week 11 Lectures Kinematics - Motion in 2 Dimensions
- PHYS Week 12 Lectures Waves, Doppler, Hubble Law
- PHYS Week 13 Lectures, Michelson-Morley, Special Relativity
- PHYS Week 14 Lectures General Relativity, Black Holes
- PHYS Week 15 Lectures General Relativity, E=mc2
- PHYS Week 16 Lectures Finals Week

- ASTR 100 Syllabus
- ASTR 100 Lab Manual PDF
- ASTR 100 Achieve Student Login
- ASTR Weekly Lectures
- ASTR Week 1 Lectures - Dark Matter, Dark Energy
- ASTR Week 2 Lectures Scientific Notation
- ASTR Week 3 Lectures Astronomic Scales, History (1)
- ASTR Week 4 Lectures Brahe, Kepler, Newton, Gravity
- ASTR Week 5 Lectures Special Relativity
- ASTR Week 6 Lectures General Relativity
- ASTR Week 7 Lectures Star Formation
- ASTR Week 8 Lectures Cepheid Variable Stars
- ASTR Week 9 Lectures Low Mass Star Death
- ASTR Week 10 Lectures High Mass Star Death
- ASTR Week 11 Lectures Neutron Stars, Pulsars, Black Holes
- ASTR Week 12 Lectures Distance-Luminosity Modulus
- ASTR Week 13 Lectures, Waves, Hubble Law
- ASTR Week 14 Lectures Relativistic Red Shift
- ASTR Week 15 Lectures, Big Bang
- ASTR Week 16 Lectures Finals Week

- Galileo's Sketches
- ASTR Planetary Nebulae
- ASTR Neutron Stars and Pulsars
- How Large Is the Universe?
- The Elegant Universe - String Theory
- Space Travel Posters
- James Webb Telescope Images